"Homo Sapiens is the single surviving species of human evolutionary development, or modern man, belonging to the genus Homo and the primate family Hominidae. The account in Genesis of the creation of man refers to the creation of Homo Sapiens, not of the other extinct species such as Neanderthal." (PoL)
Cro-magnon was the first discovered type of Homo Sapiens (See Cro-magnon). Later finds however, showed that Cro-Magnon was not the first Homo Sapiens to walk the Earth. Cro-Magnon had a Homo Sapiens predecessor, who already appeared some 300,000 to 200,000 years ago, which is rather inexplicable... (says Sitchin). An older type of homo sapiens which precedes Cro-magnon, e.g., is homo idaltu, who lived in Ethiopia approx. 160,000 years ago.
There are quite some mysteries connected to the sudden appearance of Homo Sapiens. There is e.g. a missing link between Homo Sapiens and its predecessors. And it took tens of millions of years for the first primates to evolve into homo erectus. Then all of a sudden Homo Sapiens appears, according to some, approximately ten million years before it could be expected. Why? Where does it come from?
More and more people believe that Homo Sapiens did not come into existence by itself, or, in other words, that Homo Sapiens is not the result of merely evolution.
According to Humanoid Galactic History, Homo Sapiens was a cross-breed between earth (humanoid) primates and several races of extra-terrestrial 'humans.' All these races, however, are of Lyran and/or Vegan descent.
Sitchin claims more or less the same thing. He says the Sumerian tablets tell how man was created some 300,000 years ago by the Gods. These Gods are the Nefilim, the inhabitants of the 12th planet (Nibiru). They would have used genetic manipulation to combine the genetic material of these aliens with genetic material of Earth primates.
Current research indicates Neanderthals lived between 230,000 and 28,000 years ago in Europe,
Central Asia and the Middle East, and that the earliest representatives of Homo Sapiens would have emerged at around the same time, possibly even 300,000 years ago. Homo sapiens sapiens, i.e. modern man as it is now, may have come into existince already 130,000 years ago.
Recent findings, based upon analyses and comparisons of mitochondrial DNA, also suggest Neanderthal generally is a different species ('a cousin') and not an ancestor of homo sapiens. Yet, recent findings in Portugal on the other hand indicate that - in the 200,000 years that homo sapiens and neanderthal roamed the earth together - interbreeding did take place in Europe. This means some (European) people would have Neanderthal ancestors.